Citing Different Sources with Harvard Referencing

This page outlines how to cite different kinds of sources using the Harvard Referencing method.



A page number is required if you are paraphrasing, summarising or quoting directly:

(Karskens 1997, p. 23)

Ward (1966, p. 12) suggests that

If you are only citing the main idea of the book:

(Karskens 1997)

List of references

Karskens, G 1997, The Rocks: life in early Sydney, Melbourne University Press, Carlton.

Ward, R 1966, The Australian legend, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Present full bibliographic details in the following order:

  • author's surname, and initial(s)
  • year of publication,
  • title of publication (in italics and with minimal capitalisation),
  • edition (if applicable. Abbreviated as 'edn'),
  • publisher,
  • place of publication.

Edited book collections

To cite a chapter from a book collection


A book collection consists of a collection of articles or chapters, each by different authors, but compiled by editor(s). If you want to cite a particular article/chapter, cite the author(s) of the chapter in the text:

(Curthoys 1997, p. 25)

List of references

When you use an article/ chapter from a book collection, the title of the article appears in quotations. The title of the book is italicised. For example:

Curthoys, A 1997, 'History and identity', in W Hudson & G Bolton (eds), Creating Australia: changing Australian history,  Allen & Unwin, Sydney, pp. 23-38

Place the information in the following order:

  • author's surname and initial
  • year of publication
  • name of article (between single quotation marks with minimal capitalisation)
  • in
  • initial(s) and surname(s) of editor(s)
  • (ed.) or (eds)
  • name of collection (the name on the title page) in italics and minimal capitalisation
  • publisher
  • place of publication
  • page range

To cite an entire book collection


If you want to cite the entire book, refer to the editor(s) of the collection in the text:

(Hudson & Bolton 1997)

List of references

Hudson, W & Boltton, G (eds) 1997, Creating Australia: changing Australian history,  Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

Journal articles


If the page number is required, as it is for summarising, paraphrasing and direct quoting:

(Kozulin 1993, p. 257)

If you are citing the main idea of the article only:

(Kozulin 1993)

List of references

Kozulin, A 1993, 'Literature as a psychological tool', Educational Psychologist, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 253-265, DOI:10.1207/s15326985ep2803_5.

Place the information in the following order:

  • author's surname and initial
  • year of publication
  • title of the article (between single quotation marks and with minimal capitalisation)
  • title of the journal or periodical (in italic font using maximum capitalisation)
  • volume number (vol.)
  • issue number (no.)
  • page range of the article 
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier), if available

What is a DOI?

A DOI (digital object identifier) is an assigned number that helps link content to it’s location on the Internet. It is therefore important, if one is provided, to use it when creating a citation.

Citing online journals accessed via webpages

Newspapers and magazines


If there is no author, list the name of the newspaper, the date, year and page number:

(Sydney Morning Herald 7 March, 1994, p.8)

If there is an author, cite as you would for a journal article:

(Donaghy 1994, p. 3)

List of references

An unattributed newspaper article:

'Gifu-city gains top ranking from quality team', Sydney Morning Herald, 30 February, 1994, p.21. 

A newspaper article with a named author:

Donaghy, B 1994, 'National meeting set to review tertiary admissions', Campus News,  3-9 March, p. 3.

Citing online newspaper articles

Personal communications

To quote from a privately obtained interview, letter or other personal communication


Include in the abbreviation 'pers. comm.' in  your text reference:

(B Daly 1994, pers. comm., 7 Aug.)

Note that the initial(s) precede the surname.

List of references

  • Details of a personal communication do not usually need to be included in the List of References as it cannot be traced by the reader. Check with your tutor or lecturer for their preferences.
  • Before using personal communications, ensure you have the permission of the person with whom you communicated. 

Government publications


If there is no obvious author or editor, cite the sponsoring agency as the author:

(Department of Education, Science & Training 2000)

List of references

Give the name of the ministry or agency that has issued the document:

Department of Education, Science & Training 2000, Annual Report 1999-2000, AGPS, Canberra.

Unpublished material (thesis, a manuscript, an unpublished paper)


(Ballard 2003, p. 132)

(Fitzsimmons 2005)

List of references

When citing a thesis in the List of References: 

  • put the title between quotation marks and do not use italics.
  • acknowledge the university where the thesis was undertaken

Ballard, BA 2003, 'The seeing machine: photography and the visualisation of culture in Australia, 1890-1930', PhD thesis, University of Melbourne.

An unpublished conference paper:

Fitzsimmons, D 2005, 'Who chooses who belongs: tactics and strategies and migrant literature'. paper presented at the AULLA & FILLM conference, James Cook University, Cairns, 15-19th July.

ABS statistics


Use the full name in the first in-text reference:

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005)

and use the abbreviation 'ABS' in subsequent references:

(ABS 2005)

List of references

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005, New South Wales in focus, Cat. no. 1338.1, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

  • name of agency as author
  • year of publication
  • title of publication (in italics)
  • catalogue number
  • name of publisher
  • place of publication

If you are viewing the information online, include:

  • date of viewing (if viewed online)
  • database name (if applicable)
  • URL (between pointed brackets)

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007, Internet Activity, Australia, Sep 2006, Cat. no. 8153.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 11 April 2007, <



Cite the author or authoring body and date if available:

(New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries 2005)

List of references

New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries 2005, Saltwater recreational fishing in New South Wales: rules & regulations summary, brochure, NSWDPI, New South Wales.

Include as much information as available. The publisher’s name may be abbreviated if it is also the author.