Quotations, paraphrases and summaries
|Quotation (exact words from the source)|
Reproduce the text word for word and place quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. The author, date and page number should be included.
Broudy (1998, p. 8) argues that "on the common criteria for schooling, our sample citizen has failed because he cannot replicate the necessary skill or apply the relevant principles."
"Thinking on the common criteria for schooling, our sample citizen has failed because he cannot replicate the necessary skill or apply the relevant principles." (Broudy, 1998, p. 8)
|A paraphrase of an author's words or ideas|
Restate the original in your own words. The author and date must be included. It can also be helpful to provide page or paragraph numbers, particularly if you are citing a longer work. The APA publications manual 6th edn (p. 171) encourages you to provide page numbers to help your reader locate the information.
Encouraging students to memorise information and then testing their memory has been a constant criterion of pedagogy (Broudy, 1998).
Broudy (1998, p. 8) argues that memorisation does not result in an ability to solve problems.
|To reference the overall content of a work|
No need to include page numbers because it is the entire work you are referring to:
Larsen and Greene (1989) studied the effects of pollution in three major citiies...