Harvard Referencing for Electronic Sources

What are electronic sources?

Electronic sources include web sites, emails, films, television programs, podcasts and radio broadcasts, online journals and eBooks.

How do I cite them?

The Harvard System requires two elements: in-text citations throughout your assignment, and a list of references at the end.

1. In-text citations

Include three pieces of information about a source within the text of your work:

  • the name of the author or authors
  • the year of publication
  • the page number (if available; many electronic resources don’t have pages)

2. List of references

At the end of your text, you must include a List of References, a list of all the sources of information you have used to research your assignment.

What information should I include?

Referencing electronic resources can be confusing - it's difficult to know which information to include or where to find it. As a rule, provide as much information as possible concerning authorship, location and availability.

Electronic citations require much of the same information as print sources (author, year of publication, title, publisher). However, some extra details are required:

  • identify that you accessed the source in an electronic format
  • provide an accurate access date for online sources (that is, identify when a source was viewed or downloaded).
  • provide the location of an online source (for example, a database or web address)

Some documents are published in both paper and electronic formats. You should cite according to the format you accessed. Unlike printed material, internet sources can easily be changed, or disappear altogether, so full and accurate citation information is essential.

See next: How do I cite?